@ FTA - Pin 1 is marked (white dot) on the board, and the corner of the connector at pin 1 is also angled. So what you have marked as pin 7 is really pin 1 of the connector. Also, all of the odds are on one side, while the evens are on the other, so pin 14 in your diagram is really pin 2 there. Redo them that way, and you'll find the D+ and D- are on 10 and 12, like I have listed.
Yes you can just solder directly to the connector thru some 33ohm Resistors.
The USB 5v goes thru R1 before hitting pin 8 of the connector, but you can skip that and just go directly to pin 8 if you need.
@ connormtully - That spot is the AN+ for the Y-Axis POT. You can solder a short jumper wire from the spot just to the left of the X spot to the lead of the POT under it and get the AN+ back to it.